How did the Johnson-Reed Act of 1924 restrict immigration? Trying to live off the land was futile as the Steppes had no real population centers, and those who lived there were usually destitute. This meant that he did not meet up with the Swedes, but the Russians were able to surround him and his men and end the Cossacks rebellion[11]. By the 1660s the Kingdom of Sweden directly controlled the modern states of Finland and the Baltic States. At the last minute, Charles assembled a large army but was obliged to leave some of his troops with the Polish King, who was his puppet. This able king died while still a relatively young man. Today we associate Sweden with liberal values and a peaceful society. Charles had entered an alliance with them in the hopes of securing a massive army. The invasion of Russian was a disaster, and it spelled the end of the Swedish Empire and marked the advent of Russia onto the European stage as a major power. Instead, he campaigned to no great effect in Poland, which allowed Peter the Great to regroup and strengthen his military. Charles XII was widely seen as a military genius, and Voltaire, who wrote his biography, called him the most remarkable man of his time. Lets say that Sweden and Russia make some sort of peace without Sweden actually invading Russia. In 1700, a triple alliance of Denmark's kingdoms, Poland and Russia, launched a three-pronged attack on the Swedes. The Swedish king secured a great victory with only minimal losses. How did the Bubonic Plague make the Italian Renaissance possible? The invasion of Russia by Charles XII of Sweden was a campaign undertaken during the Great Northern War between Sweden and the allied states of Russia, Poland, and Denmark. The Ukrainian Cossacks had been in rebellion against Peter the Great for some time. The British and the American navies on the Great Lakes were eliminated. [2] Its fleet also dominated the Baltic. The culmination… He made a cardinal error by marching on Moscow, and he should have attacked and conquered St Petersburg instead. Charles planned an invasion of the Russian heartland, allying himself with Ivan Mazepa, Hetman of the Ukrainian Cossacks. [7] the Hetman had told the Swedes of the Cossacks that he could provide them with 40,000 men. This led to the Great Northern War. His son became king of Sweden at the age of fifteen. The Swedish monarch strategy was too ambitious, and he was not aware of Russia's sheer extent. The leadership of the army passed to Rehnskiöld. Voltaire did not doubt that the entire invasion of Russia was a mistake. This page was last edited on 21 November 2020, at 08:24. Like subsequent invaders, they struggled in the vast landscape with its harsh climate. With a kid on the throne, its enemies figured 1700 was the ideal year to attack. His army was expected to travel huge distances in a terrible climate. The Cossack Hetman was not decisive and unwilling to leave his home base. In the interim, a caretaker government ran things until Charles XII took the throne. Imperial Russian forces were also a modern fighting force, and they fought courageously in defense of ‘Holy Russia.’ Then there were the vast spaces and inclement weather of the Russian Steppe, which played a crucial factor in the Swedish invasion's defeat. The failed invasion of Russia by Hitler and Napoleon are well known. Charles XII, also Carl (Swedish: Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. This gave the Russians an outlet to the sea, from which they could threaten Sweden in the Baltic. Charles XII's loss essentially ensured the end of The Swedish Empire. This war's culmination was the Swedish monarch’s invasion of Russia and his subsequent defeat by Tsar Peter the Great at Poltava (1709). [14] The Swedish king’s entire strategy of invading Russia was arguably unrealistic. However, he made several serious miscalculations. Instead, they adopted delaying tactics, knowing that the Swedes would suffer in the Steppes during the winter. Why. How did Vatican II change the Catholic Church? Read the rest of the article at Dailyhistory.org, Tags: Charles the XII, Cossack, Holowczyn, Peter the Great, Russia, Sweden. Charles XII invasion of Russia, 1708-1709, https://dailyhistory.org/index.php?title=Why_did_Charles_XII_of_Sweden_fail_to_conquer_Russia_in_1708%3F&oldid=21396. [2] Its fleet also dominated the Baltic. The young monarch belonged to the Royal German House of Palatinate. The Russians then cut off the Swede's supply lines. The sheer scale of Russia and its endless Steppes proved too much for the Swedes. The Russians and the Swedes clashed in a great Battle of Holowczyn. Charles XII was one of the most talented military leaders of the Early Modern era. Peter the Great and his generals adopted a cautious strategy. The Swedes secured devastating victory by Swedish forces under the general Rehnskiöld over the Russians and their Saxon allies at the Battle of Fraustadt in 1706. Later, during the Great Northern War (1700 - 1721), the Swedish army invaded the then-Russian territories of Belarus, taking the city of Mogilev. The failed invasion of the Russian Empire by Charles XII has been largely forgotten but had he succeeded, Europe's fate could have been different. This alliance did not strengthen Charles as he had hoped. Charles was confronted by a huge Russian army that was numerically superior to his own. While some Swedes tried to lay siege to Saint Petersburg in 1708 (but the town resisted), Charles XII of Sweden led an army to invade the territories around Smolensk, but ultimately co… This led to the Great Northern War. Instead, Charles turned out to be a military and political genius. The failed invasion of Russia by Hitler and Napoleon are well known. Apparently Sweden's King Charles XII had led his army west across Poland, all the way to occupy Saxony (the home of the elected King of Poland), with the aim of making Poland a puppet state, then back east across Poland for an invasion of Russia via "Lithuania," (which then also included modern Belarus and parts of the Ukraine). The Importance of the Indus Valley Civilization. Young Charles XII was the driving force of the Great Northern War. Charles XII, king of Sweden (1697–1718), an absolute monarch who defended his country for 18 years during the Great Northern War and promoted significant domestic reforms. These were to prove fatal mistakes. To link up with the Cossacks, he moved away from the Russian heartland and headed into Ukraine. Home › Military History › Why did Charles XII of Sweden fail to conquer Russia in 1708? This article discussed the background the Swedish invasion, the military campaign and the defeat of Charles and his army at Poltava. Why did the Battle of the Somme fail to achieve its objectives? This article discussed the background of the Swedish invasion, the military campaign, and the defeat of Charles and his army at Poltava. A council of regents had controlled the young monarch at first, but at the incredibly young age of fifteen, he became the kingdom's sole ruler. How did the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588) change England? This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Swedish armies briefly conquered Novgorod in 1611, but in 1617 were forced to give it back. Charles was now reliant on the support of the massive Cossack rebellion led by Mazepa in Ukraine. Then there was the strategy of the Russians. By this time, he was popularly known as ‘The Alexander of the West,’ a comparison with Alexander the Great. Charles XII, aka Carolus Rex -- boy, the difference growing up and sobering up can make. without doing that, would Napoleon be in even … Until they made the classic mistake of invading Russia. [1] Under the House of Vassa, the kingdom had expanded greatly. Many units were needed to defend Sweden and its extensive Empire. In the following summer of 1709, in a skirmish with some Russians, Charles was wounded and fell into a coma. His son became king of Sweden at the age of fifteen. As noted by the encyclopedia Britannica, King Charles XII ascended to the throne of Sweden in 1697 at the age of 15. The sight of a mere boy on the Throne of Sweden alerted the neighbors of the Swedes. In total, the Swedish army was composed of 50,000 men, mostly Swedes and Finns. However, in the Early Modern Period the Kingdom of Sweden was one of the powerhouses of Europe and the greatest power in Northern Europe. The Deterioration of US/Japanese Relations at the turn of the 20th Century. The Swedes were inured to Arctic weather, yet they felt extremely challenging fighting in the Ukrainian Plains. It demonstrates that the failure of the Swedish army’s invasion was due to the geography of Russia, bad luck and the dogged stubbornness of the Russian people. However, due to the conditions of the 1617 peace treaty, Russia lost its access to the Baltic Sea. Less well-known is invasion of Russia by the Swedes under their most famous king, Charles XII. This able king died while still a relatively young man. This was to leave Charles isolated during the Steppes at the onset of winter. Sweden in 1700 was the greatest Northern European power and this provoked the jealousy of its neighbors. The Mysterious Illness of Jim Bowie: How Did He Contribute to His Own Decline? Charles XII, sometimes Carl (Swedish: Karl XII) or Latinized to Carolus Rex (17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S. The Swedish king was able to lead his men once again, but it was too late. They adopted a cautious approach, knowing that the elements would help them defeat the Swedes. Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and his German wife Ulrika Eleonora the Elder. What were the social factors that led to the Renaissance in Italy? In hindsight, Charles XII did not really hope of victory over the Russian Tsar, and the invasion was doomed from the start. The failed invasion of the Russian Empire by Charles XII has been largely forgotten but had he succeeded the fate of Europe could have been different. Ivan Mazepa, Hetman of the Ukrainian Cossacks, managed to secure a vast area independent of the Russians. Sweden in 1700 was the greatest Northern European power and this provoked the jealousy of its neighbors. Charles XI of Sweden had managed to defend the extensive Empire and had greatly expanded its influence. [4], While Charles was bogged down in the vast Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Russian Tsar Peter the Great reformed the Russian military and ironically modeled his army on the Swedish forces. Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and his German wife Ulrika Eleonora the Elder. Then there was Charles XII's strategy of attacking Moscow deep in Russia. This led to the Great Northern War. Winter was approaching, and in the cold many, soldiers succumbed to frostbite. Sweden in 1700 was the greatest Northern European power, and this provoked the jealousy of its neighbors. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Around 1700, the kings of Denmark–Norway, Saxony (ruled by elector August II of Poland, who was also the king of Poland-Lithuania) and Russia united in an alliance against Sweden, largely through the efforts of Johann Reinhold Patkul, a Livonian nobleman gone traitor through the "great reduction" of Charles XI … Peter's strategy was largely like that adopted by Tsar Paul I against Napoleon and Stalin during Hitler’s invasion. But there was Riga and the Saxons to consider, and Charles let the moment pass. This was a disaster, and it sealed the fate of the Swedish invasion and the Swedish Empire. By the 1660s, the Kingdom of Sweden directly controlled Finland's modern states and the Baltic States. They decided to avoid a set battle with Charles, whose army though inferior, was much superior in terms of experience and training. Supply depots were also established at Danzig, Breslau and Magdeburg before the campaign. [3] By that year, all the enemies of Charles XII had been vanquished, and only Peter the Great remained at war. It compares the three efforts, indicates why the author thinks they all failed, evaluates whether anyone could have succeeded and if they made any sense from the point of view of the aggressor. This tries to provide an account of Napoleon’s, Charles XII’s, and Hitler’s invasions of Russia. The Polish-Swedish War of 1701-1706, also known as Karl XII's invasion of Poland or the Polish front of the Great Northern War, was a conflict in eastern Europe overshadowed by the ongoing Great Northern War fought between the Swedish Empire against the Russian Empire, Denmark-Norway, Saxony and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Spanish flu: the virus that changed the world, Textbook Racism: How scholars sustained white supremacy. Today we associate Sweden with liberal values and peaceful society. Napoleon also studied Russian geography and the history of Charles XII’s invasion of 1708-1709, which informed his main offensive movements. Then he placed too much trust in the Cossacks, and his trust in them was misplaced. It had emerged as one of the real winners of the Thirty Years War. The Russian Tsar sued for peace, but Charles rejected the overtures and decided to invade Russia. 1611, but it was Russia ’ s finest force at the age of fifteen his own?! Address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email by Vikings and some even! 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